This is a cheat "copy-paste" entry trying to clarify the difference between a fasting blood glucose of 5.5mmol/l in an insulin resistant SAD eater and a FBG of 5.5mmol/l in a LC very high fat eater running their metabolism on free fatty acids. The original exchange is in the comments section of this post. Here we go:
I've read again you post "Helicobacter and glucose" and yes, the Hisayama study suggested an increase in Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) to be a risk factor for gastric cancer (Helicobacter Pylori positive).
A modest increase in the FPG, but not a "modest increase" in the incidence of gastric cancer.
7.2 gastric cancers per 1000 person/years in the high FPG (> 5.8 mmol/l) vs. 2.2 per 1000 person/years in the low FPG (< 5.3 nmol/l) in men.
In women 2.5 per 1000 person/year in the high FPG vs. 0.8 per 1000 person/years in the low FPG.
More than three times higher incidence?!?
Good if you have a low FPG. Ok, but do you have a low FBG if you're on a LC diet?
I don't want to spoil the party to many LCers here, but I read on this Blog that "LC eating rapidly induces insulin resistance" and that "elevated non esterified fatty acids induce physiological insulin resistance and a higher than expected FBG level.".
Uhmm... Bad news for LCers who carry their "beast"?
p.s. - Peter, you said: "This carbohydrate derivative may be more important than sugar for H pylori gastritis, though perhaps NOT IN THE GASTRIC CARCINOGENESIS ASPECT".
I don't understand. Why "not in the carcinogenesis aspect"? Could you explain?
OK, here we go.
A LC eater has a FBG of 5.5mmol/l, technically pre diabetic, but blood insulin is 3.5 IU/ml. This is VERY low. Glucose is in very short supply but blood glucose is maintained by physiological insulin resistance, ie the muscles are full of triglycerides assembled from free fatty acids (NEFA) from lipolysis. The LC eater has breakfast, with enough protein from his eggs or particularly casein from his yoghurt to raise insulin from 3.5 IU/ml to 5.0IU/ml. This inhibits lipolysis enough to reduce NEFA in the bloodstream, intramuscular triglycerides fall and muscle insulin sensitivity returns. There's minimal glucose coming from the gut and so plasma glucose drops to between 4.0 and 5.0mmol/l, probably nearer 4.0mmol/l. It fluctuates between 4.0 and 5.0 after and between each LC meal. In the early hours of the morning there is a growth hormone surge and NEFA from lipolysis peak early morning to give insulin resistant muscles and an elevated FBG.
MEAN glucose over 24h will be in 4 point somethingish, HbA1c will be between 4 and 5%. INSULIN will probably average out around 5-10 IU/ml, averaged out over 24h.
A SAD eater has a FBG of 5.5, prediabetic, because he is prediabetic. His muscles and liver are permanently and pathologically insulin resistant. His pancreas is cranking out 50 IU/ml of insulin to just keep that FBG in the 5.5mmol/l range. He eats bagels, jam and a large mocha for breakfast and his blood glucose hits 15mmol/l. His pancreas ups the insulin output as high as it can get it, perhaps to 150 IU/ml and just manages to to get blood glucose back down to 5.5mmol/l before lunch. Lunch is pasta and the cycle repeats.
Mean glucose over 24 hours will be between 7 and 12mmol/l. HbA1c might just hover around 7%. INSULIN will average 100 IU/ml over the 24 hours.
Helicobacter lives on the hydrogen from flatus, so is present in far too high a number for health in our flatulent carb eater and chronically irritates the gastric lining. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor is over expressed and converts disorderly proliferation of gastric mucosa in to gastric cancer. See here.
Insulin acts on IGF-1 receptor to achieve this transformation.
A high carb eater with FBG of 5.5mmol/l implies chronic hyperinsulinaemia, 24/7 and is looking for something to die from.
A LC, very high fat eater with a FBG of 5.5mmol/l implies they haven't had breakfast yet. They are not going to be hyperinsulinaemic at any stage. Unless they eat a bagel instead of their normal bacon and eggs that is. If they do this their blood glucose will hit 10mmol/l before insulin can shut down lipolysis and get the muscle accepting glucose.
It's NOT the FBG of 5.5mmol/l that matters. It's what that means about insulinaemia if you are eating a rice based diet. It's bad. The Kitavans eat a sweet potato based diet, are not insulin resistant and have FBG of 3 point something.
Does that clarify matters? Did I screw up in terms of clarity in the posts on physiological insulin resistance and H. pylori? If so, I'd better get a new post up!
Thinking in terms of FBG = 5.5mmol/l = huge cancer risk is thinking like a cardiologist. Don't go there. Think why, think holistically.